許多小型犬在中、老年時,容易出現呼吸困難、急促的症狀,這種狀況是因為氣管中有某部分軟骨軟化鬆弛,引起該處的氣管扁塌,在症狀嚴重時,甚至會出現昏迷危及生命的狀況,若有飼養小型犬的飼主要特別注意喔!

氣管塌陷(tracheal collapse)是什麼?

氣管塌陷是一種氣管的阻塞使空氣無法順暢流通至肺部,主要原因是氣管的軟骨軟化鬆弛造成氣管塌陷,至於軟骨軟化鬆弛有多種成因產生影響,包括遺傳異常、營養因素、神經因素與氣管軟骨退化等都有可能造成。

氣管塌陷常發生在中老年的小型犬種,如博美、約克夏、吉娃娃、迷你貴賓和巴哥犬等犬種。為什麼是這些犬種容易發生氣管塌陷,主要原因是這些犬種的氣管環軟骨細胞數相較其他犬隻少,且有天生間質退化(matrix degeneration) 的現象,造成氣管環無法在正常呼吸下支撐氣管而發生塌陷。

氣管塌陷分為四期,第一期:氣管軟骨少許變形,直徑減少25%。第二期:直徑減少50%。第三期:直徑減少約75%+氣管黏膜接觸,會有咳嗽,組織液產生。第四期:氣管直徑減少約90%以上+氣管斷面扁平,看起來像橫躺的數字「8」,呼吸困難。

狗狗氣管塌陷
氣管塌陷及分期圖示

氣管塌陷症狀有哪些?

1.鵝鳴咳嗽(goose-hock)

2.呼吸困難急促

3.不耐運動

影片為患有氣管塌陷犬隻的鵝鳴呼吸狀況
影片來源:蘇筱晶 獸醫師

治療氣管塌陷的方式有哪些?

內科藥物治療

氣管塌陷有時會造成緊急的呼吸困難,就診時要快速給予急救的藥物,使用讓氣管和肺部放鬆的藥物和鎮靜寵物來改善呼吸窘迫和嚴重的咳嗽。

至於慢性氣管塌陷的患畜,最常使用的藥物是止咳劑及氣管擴張劑。止咳劑可減少因慢性咳嗽造成的氣管上皮刺激與傷害。而支氣管擴張劑可促進小支氣管的擴張,讓胸內壓力減少,進而使氣管的塌陷程度降低,但無法直接讓氣管的直徑擴張。

外科手術治療

手術方式有很多,包括氣管環軟骨切開(tracheal ring chondrotomy)、背側氣管膜的摺疊(placation of dorsal tracheal membrane)、氣管切除與吻合、氣管外植入物(prosthetic implants),及較新的氣管內支架(endoluminal stent) 放置。目前較有效方式是氣管外植入物的放置。

年輕的狗狗發生頸部區域的氣管塌陷可以考慮以外科手術矯正,年紀大的狗狗有複雜的其他醫學上考量,需要由專業獸醫師評估後進行。

如何預防氣管塌陷?

居家護理

1.體重管理:體重過重會對氣管造成不好的影響,使氣管受到更多壓迫耗損更快。

2.適量的運動:運動量的控管是相當重要的,適當適量的運動才能讓狗狗保持健康,不造成身體的負擔。

3.注意溫差變化:注意狗狗身體的保暖及室內外溫度的變化,減緩症狀發生的機會。

4.減少外部刺激因子:注意環境清潔,減少灰塵、粉塵,並減少香水、精油等噴灑,刺激狗狗呼吸道的因子。

5.不使用壓迫氣管的項圈或牽繩:項圈在使用時會壓迫咽喉,影響狗狗呼吸、增加頸部負擔。

營養保健

1.Omega3:氣管塌陷會造成氣管壁的摩擦,容易產生炎症反應,環軟骨耗損時產生的間質分解酵素(MMP),也會進一步地讓軟骨組織被分解。Omega3可抑制炎症反應與MMP的作用,因此多補充Omega3是很重要的。

除了透過營養補品養品魚油來補充,也能透過飲食攝取食物中深海魚,如紅甘魚(鰤魚),也是不錯的Omega3來源。

2.膠原蛋白和軟骨素:營養品可選擇含有UC2(第二型非變性膠原蛋白成分)的關節保護劑使用,食物中也可透過雞軟骨相關補充。

3.薑黃:可抑制炎症反應,適量補充有助於紓緩症狀。

最後,再次提醒飼主除了居家照顧及營養補充外,若真的不幸發現狗狗有氣管塌陷的症狀時,請在狗狗初期/年輕時及早治療,絕對不要輕忽,不要讓狗狗辛苦也讓自己留下遺憾喔!

懶得看文字嗎?這裡有影片介紹!
影片來源:妮可獸醫師X跑食補Pawsible

資料部份擷取自:鄭劭蕙 小動物氣管塌陷專題報導

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